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Decontamination fluid

We recommend to use as liquid decontamination reagent the decontamination foam of ADF Decon Formula 200F during the decontamination process. Below you will find some information and characteristics of the decontamination fluid

 

Formulations for the Decontamination and Mitigation of CB Warfare Agents, Toxic Hazardous Materials, Viruses, Bacteria, and Bacterial Spores

Abstract


A non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous foam with enhanced physical stability for the rapid mitigation and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic hazardous materials has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The foam formulation is based on a surfactant system to solubolize sparingly soluble agents and increase rates of reaction with nucleophilic reagents and mild oxidizing agents. The formulation also includes water-soluble polymers to enhance the physical stability of the foam.

Experimental results have shown effective decontamination of both chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agent simulants and live agents on contaminated surfaces and in solution. Testing has also shown that the foam decontaminates thickened agent simulants as well. Other experimental work has demonstrated that the foam effectively decontaminates CW agent simulants on a variety of surfaces. The foam also kills anthrax spores. In biological tests, 7-log kill of the spores has been achieved after exposure to the foam solution. Additional testing has demonstrated that the foam is also effective in killing vegetative cells of Erwinia herbicola (a simulant for plague) and the MS-2 virus (a simulant for smallpox).

Additional tests indicate that the formulation may be effective as a universal decontaminant on a variety of toxic industrial materials and other hazardous bacteria, viruses and materials such as hydrocarbon based compounds as well.

NOTICE: Information contained in this report was prepared from an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represented that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Technology Development
Background
Reaction Mechanisms
Past Decontamination Formulations
Effect on Toxic Hazardous Materials

Sandia National Laboratories Decon Formulation
Objectives
Sandia National Laboratories Formulation
Decontamination Effectiveness
Independent Test Results
Deployment Methods
Additional CBW Toxants Covered
Logistical Considerations
Operational Characteristics and Adherence to Military Standards and Requirements
Conclusions


INTRODUCTION

A revolutionary technology that is non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous foam with enhanced physical stability for the rapid mitigation and decontamination of chemical (CW) and biological (BW) warfare agents has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The formulation is based on a surfactant system to solubolize sparingly soluble CW agents and to increase rates of reaction with nucleophilic reagents. The formulation is the first known to be effective on a broad spectrum of chemical agents as well as biological agents, bacteria, viruses, and bacterial spores.

This decontamination technology is attractive for civilian and military applications for several reasons:
1) a single decon solution can be used for both CW and BW agents;
2) it can be rapidly deployed;

3) mitigation of agents can be accomplished in bulk, aerosol, and vapor phases;
4) it exhibits minimal health and collateral damage;
5) it requires minimal logistics support;

6) it has minimal run-off of fluids and no lasting environmental impact; 7) it has a high expansion rate making it logistically desirable;
8) contact times can reasonably be determined.

The SNL Decon Formulation has decontaminated both CW and BW agents and simulants. For CW work, live agent testing has been conducted with GD (Soman), VX, and HD (Mustard) at governmental facilities. The half-lives for the decontamination of these agents in the foam system is on the order of two minutes to twenty minutes. The majority of the work with BW agents has focused on anthrax where we have achieved 7-log kill (99.99999%) of anthrax spores after a ten minute exposure to the foam. Other BW work has demonstrated rapid kill of the simulants for plague (a vegetative bacterial cell) and for the smallpox virus.


TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

A. Background


The original objective of the research project at Sandia was to develop an effective, rapid, and safe (non-toxic and non-corrosive) decontamination technology. Ideally, the technology is applicable to a variety of scenarios such as the decontamination of open, semi-enclosed, and enclosed facilities, vehicles, personnel and sensitive equipment.

The initial research effort has been directed to materials for neutralization of chemical and biological compounds or agents, and especially chemical and biological weapons agents and their method of making. This Program was funded by the United States Government under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy's DOE-NN-20 CBNP Program's Decontamination and Restoration Thrust Area.

In particular, the research was directed to materials containing solubilizing compounds and reactive compounds that can be delivered as foams, sprays, liquids, fogs and aerosols to enhance the rate of reactions leading to neutralization of chemical compounds, and other additives which serve to kill or attenuate certain biological compounds or agents.

THE NATURE OF CBW AGENTS

Certain CW agents share chemical characteristics that present an opportunity for the development of countermeasures. The chemical agents sarin, soman, and tabun (G-agents) are all examples of phosphorus-containing compounds which, when altered chemically, can lose their toxicity. Mustard, which is an example of the H-agents, and which is an example of the V-agents, can also be altered chemically and rendered harmless. In addition, certain of the known BW agents, i.e., botulinum toxin, anthrax and other spore-forming bacteria, vegetative bacteria, including plague and various viruses can also be deactivated chemically.

A CW or BW attack can involve either local placement or wide dispersal of the agent or agents so as to affect a population of human individuals. Because of the flexibility with which CW and BW (CBW) agents can be deployed, respondents might encounter the agents in a variety of physical states including bulk, aerosol and vapors.

Decontamination of chemical compounds have focused primarily on chemical warfare agents, particularly on the nerve agents (such as G-agents and V- agents) and on the blistering agents (such as mustard gas, or simply, mustard). Reactions involved in detoxification of chemical agents can be divided into substitution and oxidation reactions. Decontamination of biological agents is primarily focused on bacterial spores (e.g. anthrax) which are considered to be the most difficult of all microorganisms to kill.

For the first responder, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipment to an acceptable level in a very short time so casualties can be located and treated. In the restoration scenario, time is of less importance but collateral damage, public perception, and re-certification (i.e., complete decon) is of greater consequence. Thus, there were numerous research and development challenges associated with this effort. One challenge was to develop a common formulation effective against all chemical and biological agents, while being suitable for use on a wide variety of building materials commonly found in civilian facilities. A second challenge was the development of a decontamination formulation that can be rapidly deployed in large quantities by first responders to effectively destroy (or detoxify) chemical or biological agents while remaining relatively harmless to both people and property. In addition, a formulation is desired that renders chemical and biological agents harmless in a reasonable period of time so that relatively rapid restoration of facilities may be achieved

B. Reaction Mechanisms

Decontamination of chemical agents has primarily focused on the nerve agents e.g., Sarin, Soman, (G Agents) and VX (V Agents) and on the blistering agents, e.g., Mustard. Reactions involved in detoxification of chemical agents may be divided into substitution and oxidation reactions. Decontamination of biological agents is primarily focused on bacterial spores (e.g., anthrax), which are considered to be the most difficult of all microorganisms to kill. Important reagents and mechanisms for these reactions are summarized below.

Hydrolysis Substitution Reaction

Hydrolysis of chemical agents can be carried out with water, hydroxyl ions or other nucleophiles. The rate of hydrolysis of mustard and the nature of the products formed depends primarily on the solubility of the agent in water and on the pH of the solution. In the detoxification of Mustard, for example, the molecule first forms a cyclic sulfonium cation, which reacts with nucleophilic reagents. The dominant product is thiodiglycol but this product may react with sulfonium ions to give secondary intermediates HD-TDG and CH-TDG shown below (Figure 1-1).

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Figure 1-1: Secondary intermediate products generated by the hydrolysis of mustard.

The hydrolysis of Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) occurs rapidly under alkaline conditions and gives the corresponding O-alkyl methylphosphonic acid. In contrast, the hydrolysis of VX with OH ions is more complex. In addition to displacement of the thioalkyl group (i.e., P-S bond breakage), the O-ethyl group is displaced (i.e., P-O bond breakage) producing a toxic product known as EA- 2192. This concept is rationalized by considering that nucleophilic substitution at phosphorous centers involves addition to form a trigonal bipyramidal intermediate (TBP). Nucleophiles enter and depart the intermediate from an apical position. Electronegative groups, such as RO groups, preferentially occupy apical positions and groups that are bulky or electron donors, such as RS groups, occupy equatorial positions. If the lifetime of the TBP allows pseudorotation to occur, the final product will depend on the balance between apicophilicity and leaving group ability. The result is that P-S bond cleavage is favored over P-O bond cleavage by a factor of about 5. Peroxyhydrolysis, on the other hand, using OOH ions in alkaline medium was shown to involve quantitative P-S cleavage at rates 30-40 times that with OH. This selectivity was related to the relative basicities of the anionic nucleophile and the leaving anions.

Catalytic species for acceleration of substitution reactions have been reported. An important example is o-iodosobenzoate (IBA). IBA is converted to iodoxybenzoate (IBX) via oxidation that then participates in the reaction with the CW agent.

The compound was also functionalized to introduce surface activity (surfactant character) to the active group. Metal ion-amine complexes, with surface-active moiety, were also developed and shown to exhibit catalytic effects in substitution reactions. (Enzymes such as organophosphorous acid anhydrolase have also been shown to accelerate substitution reactions with the G and VX agents.

Oxidation Reaction

Oxidative decontamination methods are especially useful for Mustard and VX. An early oxidant used was potassium permanganate. Recently, Oxone (a mixture of KHSO5, KHSO4, and K2SO4) has been developed. Several peroxygen compounds have also been shown to oxidize chemical agents (e.g., perborate, peracetic acid, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid, magnesium monoperoxyphthalate, and benzoyl peroxide). More recently, hydro- peroxycarbonate anions produced by the reaction of bicarbonate ions with hydrogen peroxide have been shown to effectively oxidize Mustard and VX Polyoxymetalates are being developed as room temperature catalysts for oxidation of chemical agents but the reaction rates are reported to be slow at this stage of development. Some of these compounds undergo a color change upon interaction with chemical agents. This phenomenon is being exploited in the formulation of barrier creams and solid sorbents to indicate the presence of chemical agents.

Kill of Biological Agents

Some consider the BW threat to be more serious than the CW threat. This is in part because of the high toxicity of BW agents, their ease of acquisition and production, and difficulty in detection. There are hundreds of biological warfare agents available for use by terrorists. They may be grouped into the categories of spore forming bacterium (e.g., anthrax), vegetative bacterium (e.g., plague, cholera), virus (e.g., smallpox, yellow fever), and bacterial toxins (e.g., plague, cholera), virus (e.g., smallpox, yellow fever), and bacterial toxins (e.g., botulism, ricin). The focus of this work is on the decontamination of spores because they are recognized to be the most difficult microorganism to kill.

Bacterial spores are highly resistant structures formed by certain gram-positive bacteria usually in response to stresses in their environment. The most important spore-formers are members of the genera, Bacillus and Clostridium. Spores are considerably more complex than vegetative cells. The outer surface of a spore consists of the spore coat that is typically made up of a dense layer of insoluble proteins usually containing a large number of disulfide bonds. The cortex consists of peptidoglycan, a polymer primarily made up of highly crosslinked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid. The spore core contains normal (vegetative) cell structures such as ribosomes and a nucleoid.

Since their discovery, considerable research has been carried out to investigate methods to kill bacterial spores. Although spores are highly resistant to many common physical and chemical agents, a few antibacterial agents are also sporicidal. However, many powerful bactericides may only be inhibitory to spore germination or outgrowth (i.e., sporistatic) rather than sporicidal. Examples of sporicidal reagents, using relatively high concentrations, are: glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, iodine and chlorine oxyacids compounds, peroxy acids, and ethylene oxide. In general, all of these compounds are considered to be toxic.

There are several mechanisms generally recognized for spore kill. These mechanisms, which may operate singularly or simultaneously, are described below:

1. The dissolution or chemical disruption of the outer spore coat may allow penetration of oxidants into the interior of the spore. Several studies (King and Gould, 1969; Gould et al., 1970) suggest that the S-S (Disulfide) rich spore coat protein forms a structure which successfully masks oxidant- reactive sites. Reagents that disrupt hydrogen and S-S bonds increase the sensitivity of spores to oxidants. A typical protein with disulfide linkage:

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Figure 1-2: Protein with cysteine linkage.

2. Peptidoglycan, which is loosely cross-linked and electronegative, makes up the cortex of a spore. Interaction between a disinfectant solution and peptidoglycan may cause collapse of the cortex and loss of resistance.

3. The peptidoglycan of spore-forming bacteria contains teichoic acids (i.e., polymers of glycerol or ribitol joined by phosphate groups). Disruption of the teichoic acid polymers may cause deficiencies in the peptidoglycan structure making the spore susceptible to attack.

4. Certain surfactants may increase the wetting potential of the spore coat to such an extent as to allow greater penetration of oxidants into the interior of the spore.

With all of these mechanisms, it is generally agreed that actual spore kill is only achieved when the SNA of the spore has been sufficiently disrupted or destroyed.

C. Past Decontamination Formulations

Historically, decontamination solutions have focused strictly on the kill and neutralization of chemical and biological agents. Little emphasis has been placed on restoration and re-use of facilities and equipment. Instead, these items were considered to be expendable and were expected to be replaced in the event of a CBW attack. Thus, most decontamination formulations currently in use are both highly toxic and highly corrosive. A review of many of these current decontamination formulations is presented here.

Liquid Decontaminants Against CW Agents

In this section, a number of liquid decontamination formulations that have been developed for the decontamination of chemical agents are documented. As indicated, each of these formulations is highly toxic and/or highly corrosive.

Supertropical Bleach. The neutralization of chemical warfare agents began in 1798 when Charles Tennant discovered bleaching powder. In 1917 the Germans used bleaching powder to neutralize mustard agent. Supertropical bleach was standardized in the 1950's. It is a mixture of 93% calcium hypochlorite and 7% sodium hydroxide and is more stable than bleach in long- term storage and easier to spread. Mustard gas reacts with bleach by oxidation of the sulfide to sulfoxide and sulfone and by dehydrochlorination to form compounds such as O2S(CHCH2)2. The G agents are converted by hydrolysis to the corresponding phosphonic acids with the hypochlorite anion acting as a catalyst (Epstein et al., 1956). In acidic solutions, VX is oxidized rapidly by bleach at the sulfur atom and dissolves by protonation at the nitrogen. On the other hand, at high pH the solubility of FX is significantly reduced and the deprotonated nitrogen is oxidized leading to consumption of greater than stoichiometric amounts of bleach.

Decontaminant Solution 2 (DS2). Decontamination Solution Number 2 (DS2) was introduced in 1960. This is a non-aqueous liquid composed of 70% diethylenetriamine, 28% ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and 2% sodium hydroxide. The reactive component in the conjugate base is CH3OCH2CH2O-1. While DS2 is a highly effective decontaminant for CW agents, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has shown tetragonicity in mice and replacement with propylene glycol monomethyl ether was proposed (DS2P). In addition, DS2 attacks paints, plastics, and leather materials. To minimize these problems, the contact time with DS2 is limited to 30 minutes followed by rinsing with large amounts of water. Personnel handling DS2 are required to wear respirators with eye shields and chemically protective gloves. The reactions of DS2 with mustard lead to elimination of HC1. The nerve agents react with DS2 to form diesters, which further decompose to the corresponding phosphonic acid. DS2 is not very effective in killing spores. Only 1-log kill was observed for Bacillus subtilis after 1 hour of treatment (Tucker, 1999).

D. Effect on Toxic Hazardous Materials

Unique Patented Characteristics - The SNL Technology has exhibited similar mitigation and neutralizing effects on a wide variety of toxic industrial materials and other generally considered hazardous chemicals, compounds and materials. The SNL Decon Formulation contains reactive ingredients that will both hydrolyze and oxidize organophosphates and mitigate many other toxic/hazardous materials.

TOXIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIAL TESTING:

Sandia performed testing on a number of Toxic Industrial Chemicals ("TIC's"). Analytic tests results are selected materials is shown in the following table:

Toxic Industrial
Chemical
% Decontaminated:
1 Minute
% Decontaminated:
15 Minutes
Malathion (liquid) 89 95
Hydrogen Cyanide (gas) >99 >99
Sodium Cyanide (solid) 93 98
Butyl Isocyanate (liquid) 99 >99
Carbon Disulfide (liquid) >99 >99
Phosgene (gas) 98 >99
Amhydrous Ammonia (gas) >99 >99

Note: All materials were fully decontaminated after sixty minutes.

Safe - Despite its power, the primary oxidizers within the Sandia Formulation will decompose into oxygen and water. Consequently, Sandia Formulation has none of the problems of gaseous release of using chlorine (chlorinated organics) or chemical residues that are associated with other chemical oxidants. And since Sandia Formulation is totally miscible with water, is perfectly safe to handle and apply to many materials.

Versatile - The Sandia Formulation is very versatile. As a biocide, it can kill vegetative biological agents as well as difficult-to-kill spores like anthrax and molds. Similarly, it can treat both easy-to-oxidize pollutants (iron and sulfides) and difficult-to-oxidize pollutants (solvents, gasolines and pesticides) as well as immediately reducing the flammability. And there is no residual effect on the environment. Further, it can be deployed in a variety of formats (liquid, foam, and vapor) which optimizes contact time and emulsification of target contaminants.

SNL DECON FORMULATION

A. Objectives


The decontamination program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) focused on the development, demonstration, and commercialization of products for effective response and consequence management in the event of a release of chemical and/or biological weapons agents on US civilians and facilities. The SNL project is supported by the DOE NN-20 Chemical and Biological Non-Proliferation (CBNP) Program's Decontamination and Restoration Thrust Area.

It's stated objectives were to develop rapid, effective, and safe (non-toxic and non-corrosive) decontamination technologies for a range of chemically and biologically contaminated surfaces in civilian facilities primarily in the urban environment (U.S. Department of Energy, 2000). For the three years, SNL worked on a reagent formulation that has been extremely effective in meeting these overall objectives.

The SNL foam formulation has the following characteristics:
  • it is effective for neutralizing both chemical and biological agents;
  • it is environmentally benign to both people and property;
  • it works on all currently anticipated material surfaces;
  • it can be incorporated into a wide variety of carriers (foams, gels, and gasses) that satisfy a wide variety of operational objectives.
  • It can be retrofitted in to many existing decon apparatus.

The initial efforts have been spent on developing a foam formulation that can be used to decontaminate large surface areas such as the interiors of facilities. Progress on this research objective has proceeded to he point where developmental testing against live agents has been completed and the formulation has been shown to be effective. This section describes the physical and chemical characteristics of the foam as well as its effectiveness against chemical and biological agents in both laboratory and field tests.

B. Foam Formulation

The SNL foam is a unique formulation developed exclusively for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The foam formulation is based on a surfactant system to increase solubolization of chemical agents and reactivity with nucleophilic reagents. A mild oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide) is also added to the foam at a low concentration.

The second important physical property of foam is its stability. Foam stability is measured by its half-drainage time, which is defined as the time required for a foam to lose half of its original liquid volume. For example, if 1L of solution is used to generate a foam, the half-drainage time is defined as the amount of time for 500 ml to drain from the foam. This property is important because a stable foam allows a greater contact time between the formulation and the chemical or biological agent. The objective of this program was to develop a formulation that will produce foam with half-drainage times of several hours.

C. Decontamination Effectiveness

Certain chemical agents share a similar chemical property in the fact that they contain phosphorus bonds that can be altered when subjected to nucleophilic attack. These agents (i.e., the nerve agents) include the G agents (e.g., Sarin; Soman, and Tabun) as well as the V agents (e.g., VX). Each of these agents can be chemically detoxified and neutralized if the phosphorus bond is chemically altered by hydrolysis or by oxidation.

Blistering agents such as mustard (HD) are chemically distinct from the nerve agents in that they do not have a phosphorus-containing group. However, the carbon-chloride bonds in mustard are also subject to hydrolysis and the central sulfur can be oxidized to sulfone and sulfoxide, thereby detoxifying the molecule. Mustard does share a similar property with the nerve agents in that they all are only sparingly soluble in water.

The principle for detoxifying chemical agents in the foam is to provide a mechanism to solubolize the sparingly soluble chemical agents and to attract a nucleophilic catalyst, dissolved in aqueous media, to a position in close proximity to the agent molecule vulnerable to nucleophilic attack. This is accomplished through the recognition that certain nucleophilic agents are negatively charged. The SNL foam formulation contains positively charged micelles, which solubolize the CW agents and attract the negatively charged nucleophiles.

In the aqueous environment, the CW agent is located (solubilized) within the micelle comprised of an aggregate of surfactant molecules with hydrophobic tails forming the interior core of the micelle, and hydrophilic heads concentrating at the surface of the micelle. These positively charged hydrophilic heads attract the negatively charged nucleophiles, greatly enhancing the reaction rates with the CW agents within the micelle. This is contrasted within the situation that would occur in typical firefighting foam. Here, the negatively charged micelles repel the negatively charged nucleophiles.

D. Independent Live Agent Test Results

Live agent tests were conducted at Edgewood Proving Grounds (ECBC), Maryland on the original DF-100 Formulation. Two types of tests were performed, kinetic (reaction rate) and contact hazard tests under controlled test protocol. All tests were conducted with CASARM grade agents (Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material) at ambient room temperature.

Table 3-1: Percent decontamination in ECBC reaction rate tests for Df-100. Data for DG and HD collected at pH 9.2. Data for VX collected at pH 10.5.

Decontaminant HD GD VX
10 Min 1 Hour 10 Min 1 Hour 10 Min 1 Hour
DS2 100 100 100 100 100 100
Sandia Foam 47 100 >99 100 100 100

Df-100 was developed through funding provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's and National Nuclear Security Administration's Chemical and Biological National Security Program (CBNP. During the field testing and commercialization process, it became apparent that the primary interest for the use of the decon formulation was from the civilian first responder (e.g., fire departments, police departments, and HazMat units who would be the first to arrive at the scene of an attack utilizing CBW agents) and from the military (for both battlefield and fixed site decontamination) followed by a secondary interest in use of the foam for facility restoration. It also became apparent that two properties of the original formulation (DF-100) made use of this formulation by the civilian first responder and the military less than optimal. These properties include:

Formulation Adjustment for Decon of Each CBW Agent. The pH of the DF- 100 has to be adjusted for optimal decontamination of specific chemical and biological agents;

Relatively Slow Reaction Rate for Mustard. The reaction rate for one chemical agent, Mustard, was slower than the reaction rates for the other chemical agents.

In October 2000, Sandia received funding from the DOE CBNP program to develop an enhanced version of the DF-100 product specifically to address the issues described above and to optimize performance for the military and the civilian first responder. The result of this work is DF-200, an enhanced version of the Sandia decon formulation.

The table below summarizes test results from IITRI on live chemical agents.

Chemical Agent % Destruction of Chemical Agent
1 minute 15 minutes 60 minutes
GD 99.98 ± 0.01 99.97 ± 0.01 99.98 ± 0.01
VX 91.20 ± 8.56 99.80 ± 0.08 99.88 ± 0.04
HD 78.13 ± 10.53 98.46 ± 1.43 99.84 ± 0.32

Figure 5: Reaction rates in kinetic testing for DF-200HF against chemical agents.

Detection of very low levels of GD in the 15 and 60-minute samples was determined to be from carryover in the gas chromatography columns and not from unreacted agent.

Methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) were identified as byproducts in the decon/GD mixtures. Ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and MPA were identified as byproducts in the decon/VX mixtures. This indicated that the destruction of the VX followed the more desirable path to the phosphonic acids rather than to EA2192 (a toxic byproduct which can also be produced during VX degradation). The initial degradation products for HD are a mixture of the sulfoxide and sulfone byproducts followed by nearly complete disappearance of each of these byproducts after 60 minutes.

Results of tests utilizing DF-200 against anthrax spores is shown in Figures 6 and 7 and against Yersinia pestis (i.e., the plague bacterium) are shown in Figure 8 (NG refers to 'no growth'). The detection limit for these tests were 10 CFU/ml. Note that the 'error bars' in the '% Reduction' column takes into account this detection limit.

B. anthracis AMES-RIID Average CFU/ml Log Reduction % Reduction
Control 1.21E+07 0 0.00
15 min contact NG 7 100±.00004
30 min contact NG 7 100±.00004
60 min contact NG 7 100±.00004

Figure 6: Kill rates for B. anthracis AMES-RIID spores in a solution of DF-200HF.

B. anthracis ANR-1 Average CFU/ml Log Reduction % Reduction
Control 6.42E+07 0 0.00
15 min contact NG 7 100±.00004
30 min contact NG 7 100±.00004
60 min contact NG 7 100±.00004

Figure 7: Kill rates for B. anthracis ANR-1 spores in a solution of DF-200HF.

Y. pestis (ATCC 11953) Average CFU/ml Log Reduction % Reduction
Control 1.33E+07 0 0.00
15 min contact NG 7 100±.00004
30 min contact NG 7 100±.00004
60 min contact NG 7 100±.00004

Figure 8: Kill rates for Y. pestis cells in a solution of DF-200HF.

Bacillus Subtillus (ATCC 19659) Average CFU/ml Log Reduction % Reduction
Control 6.7E+05 0 0.00
1 hour contact NG 7 100±.00004
3 hour contact NG 7 100±.00004

Figure 8: Kill rates for Bacillus Subtillus cells in a solution of DF-200HF in AOAC tests.

The petri dishes used for cell growth on each of these tests were saved for 21 days following the tests to verify that DF-200 actually killed the spores rather than just inhibited their growth. No growth on any of the petri dishes was observed after the 21- day period.

DF200 was independently confirmed by Sandia National Laboratories in 2002 as effective on G, VX, Mustard and anthrax simulants (Diphenyl chlorophosphate, O- Ethyl S-ethyl Phenylphosphonothioate, 2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide and Bacillus globigii spores, respectively) by achieving 100% neutralization of all agents. In addition, independent lab tests have shown 100%neutralizationofbacillussubtillussporesina solution of MDF200.

Results with BW Simulants and Agents – Laboratory Tests

Work with biological agents has been focused on what is perceived to be the most difficult of agents to kill, bacterial spores (e.g., Bacillus anthracis or anthrax). Numerous tests have been conducted with the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus globigii (a recognized simulant for anthrax) to determine the effectiveness of the SNL foam formulation in killing this microorganism. Tests have also been conducted to determine the killing efficiency of the foam on a simulant for plague (Erwinia herbicola – a vegetative bacterial cell) and on a simulant for the smallpox virus (the MS-2 bacteriophage). In addition, live agent testing has been conducted with Bacillus anthracis ANR-1 at the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute in Chicago, Illinois. The foam has been shown to be effective in killing all of these organisms in a timely manner.

Two basic types of tests have been conducted to test the foam's effectiveness in the killing of BW simulants and agents. In the first type of test, a solution test, the microorganisms were dispensed directly into the liquid solution from which the foam is generated. After specified periods of time, the microorganisms were extracted from the solution by centrifugation, washed, and then plated on an appropriate biological medium to determine if they had been killed.

Microorganisms used for the spore tests were Bacillus globigii (ATCC 9372) and Bacillus anthracis ANR-2. The microorganism used for the vegetative cell tests was Erwinia herbicola (ATCC 39368). The MS-2 bacteriophage (ATCC 15597B) with the bacterial host Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) was used for the viral inactivation tests.

Photo of Bacillus globigii (anthrax spore simulant) killed during tests.

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E. Deployment Methods

The formulation of the present invention can be delivered to the toxants in a variety of manners and phases to provide the necessary detoxification. One useful form of delivery is foam. A non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous foam with enhanced physical stability for the rapid neutralization of toxants, especially CW and BW agents, was the primary focus of the development work.

This neutralization technology is attractive for civilian and military applications for several reasons including: 1) a single neutralization solution can be used for both chemical and biological toxants; 2) it can be rapidly deployed; 3) mitigation of agents can be accomplished in bulk, aerosol, and vapor phases; 4) it exhibits minimal health and collateral damage; 5) it requires minimal logistics support; 6) it has minimal run-off of fluids and no lasting environmental impact; and, 7) it is relatively inexpensive.

The foam formulation of the present invention can be delivered by various methods. Foams generated have been shown to have a maximum expansion ratio of about 60-100:1 and have been shown to be stable for approximately 1-4 hours depending on environmental conditions (temperature, wind, relative humidity). The foam can also be generated by compressed air foam systems where air is directly injected into the liquid foam. Foam generated by this method generally has expansion ratios of about 20-60:1 and is also stable from 1-4 hours. The use of foam is desirable as less concentrate can be used (therefore less weight and logistical burden) for combat or response operations.

We have designed several highly portable, high volume CAF systems that can be easily deployed by a single operator. These systems afford users with easy to use devices that can rapidly discharge foam to an intended target. The formulation of the present invention has shown the capability to neutralize toxants in bulk, aerosol and vapor states, and which can be deployed in a variety of contexts to protect or clean up targets including equipment, open areas, facilities and buildings. The formulation of the present invention can also be used in disinfection scenarios for both animals and inanimate objects.

Alternative deployment methods for the foam formulation are also available with the formulation of the present invention. Foam is nothing more than a liquid solution with a gas phase (in this case, air) blown through it. It is the formulation that is effective in the destruction/neutralization of the CBW agents, not the foam (in other words, the liquid formulation decontaminates CBW agents, not the air).

Methods such as sprays, mists and fogs can be utilized with the same basic formulation. The objective of these alternative methods will be to minimize the quantity of water that is required to be used in the restoration of controlled environments (such as indoor facilities) and to facilitate access of the formulation to the CBW agents. These alternative deployment methods can have various advantages over foam deployment. A fog, for example, can be used to achieve effective decon in areas where decontamination by a foam would be difficult, if not impossible. One example is the interior of air conditioning ducts. Remotely activated foggers could be placed inside of a facility and turned on at periodic intervals (from a remote location) to completely decontaminate the facility. This method would greatly decrease the potential for decontamination personnel to be exposed to a CBW agent.

In one embodiment, the formulation of the present invention is an aqueous-based formulation that is capable of being deployed as a fog (i.e., as an aerosol with particulate sizes ranging from 1-30 microns) for the rapid neutralization of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. The formulation exhibits low- corrosivity and low-toxicity properties and can be deployed through commercially available fog generating devices. Current decontamination formulations utilize toxic and/or corrosive chemical to achieve destruction of CBW agents that can potentially damage sensitive equipment in which it comes into contact.

Greater than 99% neutralization of the G agent simulant (diphenyl chloro phosphate) was achieved after one-hour exposure to the fog in a test chamber on all surfaces tested and complete neutralization was achieved after four successive fog treatments (with a one-hour wait between each treatment) for all surfaces. Between 70% and 99% neutralization was achieved after four successive foggings of the VX simulant (O-ethyl-S-ethyl phenyl phosphonothioate) and between 30% and 85% neutralization was achieved with the mustard simulant (chloroethyl ethylsulfide) after four successive foggings. For the anthrax simulant (B. globigii spores), 7 log kill was achieved after four successive foggings.

F. Additional CBW Toxants Covered

The chemical toxants addressed by the formulation include, but are not limited to:
  • o-alkylphosphonofluoridates,suchassarinandsoman
  • o-alkylphophoramidocyanidates,suchastabun,
  • o-alkyl, s-2-dialkyl aminoethyl alkylphosphonothiolates and corresponding alkylated or protonated salts, such as VX
  • mustardcompounds,including2-chloroethylchloromethylsulfide,bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, bis(2-chloroethylthio)methane, 1,2-bis(2- chloroethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-propane, 1,4-bis(2- chloroethylthio)-n-butane, 1,5-bis(2-chloreothylthio)-n-pentane, bis(2- chloroethylthiomethyl)ether, and bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl)ether
  • Lewisites,including2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine,bis(2- chlorovinyl)chloroarsine, tris(2-chlorovinyl)arsine, bis(2- chloroethyl)ethylamine, and bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine,
  • Saxitoxin
  • Ricin
  • alkylphosphonyldifluorideandalkylphosphorites
  • chlorosarin
  • chlorosoman
  • amiton,1,1,3,3,3,-pentafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene,3-quinuclidinyl benzilate methylphosphonyl dichloride
  • dimethylmethylphosphonate
  • dialkylphosphoramidicdihalides
  • dialkyl phosphoramidates
  • arsenictrichloride
  • diphenylhydroxyaceticacid
  • quinuclidin-3-ol
  • dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides
  • dialkylaminoethan-2-olsanddialkylaminoethane-2-thiols
  • thiodigylcols
  • pinacolylalcohols
  • phosgene
  • cyanogenchlorideandthionylchloride.
  • hydrogendyanideandchloropicrin,
  • phosphorousoxychloride
  • phosphoroustrichloride,phosphoruspentachloride,andalkylphosphites
  • sulfurmonochloride,sulfurdichloride
These compounds and other chemical compounds that can be neutralized (e.g. detoxified) by nucleophilic and oxidizing reactive agents of the present invention, are neutralized by the formulations of the present invention.

G. Logistical Considerations

The unique formulation is very beneficial to end-users as it can be produced in several formats to fulfill operational and logistical requirements such as handling, transportation and dispensing.

The Power of Expansion – The unique expansive properties of the foam affords end-users tremendous tactical advantageous previously not available with DS2. As the foam expands effectively up to 50:1, minimal bulk concentrate can be used to produce large amounts of decontaminant without outside water sources.

Calculation of Desired Coverage – End users can calculate of the amount of decontaminant required for the intended application based upon the total meters expected to be mitigated. The guidelines presented herein are based upon the NATO Standard of 10 grams of CB warfare agent per square meter. Based upon application standards developed at Sandia National Laboratory .5 liters of decontaminant per square meter is required. On the next page are tables of baseline requirements based upon assumed minimal expansion rates. Users should also be aware that operating conditions can impact results based upon the type of delivery equipment to be utilized and variations arising from foam depth, expansion rates, temperatures, wind and contact surfaces.

Coverage of formulation at 15:1 Expansion Area
5 gallons (18.925 liters) 38 sq. meters
25 gallons (94.625 liters) 190 sq. meters
100 gallons (378.5 liters) 760 sq. meters
200 gallons (757 liters) 1,520 sq. meters


OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ADHERANCE TO MILITARY STANDARDS AND REQUIREMENTS

Efficacy Standards
  • Reduces the concentration or neutralize the effects of biological warfare agents listed on the Joint Chiefs of Staff's Threat List (and biological pathogens of operational concerns) present on resources to a safe concentration level for return to unrestricted operational (worldwide) use for intended mission duration.
  • Reduces the concentration or neutralizes the effects of Toxic Industrial Materials (identified "TIM's") present on resources to a safe level for return of the resources to unrestricted operational (worldwide) use for intended mission duration.
  • Reduces the concentration or neutralizes the effects of chemical agents to the safe concentration levels for return of the resources to unrestricted operational (worldwide) use for the intended mission duration such that the single dose hazard levels are not exceeded.
  • Reduces the concentration and/or fully neutralizes contamination within 15 minutes (immediately) of application.
  • Removes or neutralizes toxic substance absorbed into the surface materials.
  • Decontaminates heavily soiled items, including items exposed to petroleum, oils and lubricants.

Material Effects Standards – The SNL formulation adheres to the requirements of minimizing the impact on materials:
  • Decontaminant is useable on any surface (e.g. terrain, concrete, asphalt, paint, metal, plastics, composite surfaces, low-observable materials, rubber seals) without causing degradation of the surface to acceptable level.
  • There is no adverse effect on systems being decontaminated (to include individual protective equipment, collective protective equipment, and detection devices) to acceptable levels of degradation.
  • Does not create residues or vapors during decontamination operations that are known or potential teratogens or carcinogens, or are acute dermal, oral, or inhalation hazards to levels in accordance with guidelines of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
  • There are no residues or vapors during decontamination operations that are hazardous waste to the levels in accordance with recommendations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
  • There is no hazard to the environment versus current decontaminants (e.g. DS-2, STB, and Hypochlorite). Does not produce toxic by-products as shown in tests.

NOTE: The SNL Decon Formulation has been tested on numerous surfaces without causing degradation of any surface material. Formulation is non-toxic and non-corrosive. All systems being decontaminated can be thoroughly decon to reduce contamination to negligible risk levels, and reduce or eliminate the need for protective clothing. SNL Decon Formulation allows for Operational Decon and Retrograde Decon without degradation of equipment, collective protective equipment and detection devices. Utilizing the SNL Decon Formulation, end-users do not have to worry about containment of run-off solutions. No toxic by-products are generated with the SNL Formulation

Operational Environment Standards – The products can be utilized for worldwide operations and deployment without degradation under climatic conditions, e.g. rain and/or wind, and heat where agents or TIM's can be encountered. The formulations perform under climatic conditions basic and hot (-0 C to 49 C) while meeting the functional requirements in this specification. When subjected to solar radiation, there is no direct impact on the functionality of the product and it will perform in 0 to 100 percent humidity, during and after exposure to blowing rain. In addition, the formulations meet or exceed the following operational environment standards:
  • Fungus Standard
  • Salt Fog and/or Spray Standard
  • Dust and Sand Standard
  • High Altitude Standard
  • Shock Standards
  • Vibration Standards
  • Explosive Environment Standards
  • Rapid Decompression Standards
  • Environmental Standards
  • Existing Equipment Standards
CONCLUSIONS

The technologies represent revolutionary new developments for the response to dealing with CB Warfare Agents, Toxic Industrial Materials, viruses, bacteria and bacteria spores. In addition, the operational characteristics and unique delivery devices afford end-users with state-of-the-art means of combating situations.

A non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous foam with enhanced physical stability for the rapid mitigation and decontamination of CBW agents has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Results have shown effective rapid decontamination of both CW and BW agents. In addition, 99.99999% kill of anthrax spores was achieved after a one-hour exposure to the foam solution. Tests have demonstrated that the foam is effective in killing vegetative cells of Erwinia herbicola and bacterial viruses (MS2), which are simulants for plague and smallpox.

This formulation is both non-toxic to animals, including humans, generally non- corrosive and can be used for the neutralization of many toxants, both chemical and biological. The formulation allows decontamination of areas populated with both people and sensitive equipment; works on all currently anticipated material surfaces and can be incorporated into a wide variety of carriers (foams, gels, fogs, aerosols) that satisfy a wide variety of operational objectives. This formulation has low toxicity and low corrosivity properties. This allows the formulation to be used where exposure to people, animals, or equipment may be necessary or prudent.

This technology was demonstrated in the Fixed Site Decon Trials at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) where the foam successfully neutralized TGD (thickened soman), VX and HD and at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Grounds where the formulation successfully killed Bacillus globigii spores (an anthrax simulant) on common office materials.

This advanced technology represents a significant breakthrough to allow end- users the ability to effectively combat CB warfare agents, viruses, bacteria, toxic industrial materials and bacterial spores.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

AUTHORIZED SANDIA LICENSEE
MSDS NO: SNL872-520-0627
MSDS DATE: 12-02-04
REVISED: April 16, 2013

IDENTIFICATION, COMPOSITION AND INGREDIENTS
PRODUCT NAME:
BRAND:
COMPOSITION:
HAZARD RATING:
ADF-200 – Part A
DF-200
Biodegradable mixture of cationic detergents and fatty alcohols
Health: 1; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 0. (NFPA)
ACTIVEINGREDIENTS:
Quaternary Alkyl (50%C14, 40%C12
10% C16) Dimethyl Benzyl ammonium chloride (CAS 68424-85-1)
INERT INGREDIENTS
TOTAL
%

3.2
96.8
100
OSHAPELACGIH

Not Established
PHYSICAL DATA   
APPEARANCE:
ODOR:
EVAPORATION RATE:
VAPOR PRESSURE:
Yellowish clear liquid
Sweet
1 (water=1)
Unknown
SOLUBILITY IN WATER:
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
pH of CONCENTRATE:
BOILING POINT:
Complete
1.17
10.6
212° F.
FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA   
FLAMMABILITY:
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA:
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS:
SPECIAL FIR FIGHTING PROCEDURES:
EXPLOSION LIMITS:
Not flammable
As for surrounding fire
None
None
N/A
FIRST AID EMERGENCY PROCEDURES    
EYE CONTACT:
SKIN CONTACT:
INGESTION:
BREATHING:
Flush eye with cool running water for at least 15 minutes. Call a Physician.
Flush with cool running water. If irritation develops, call a Physician.
Drink promptly several glasses of water or milk. Call a Physician.
Move to fresh air. If breathing becomes heavy seek medical attention
SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION    
PROTECTIVE GLOVES:
EYE PROTECTION:
LOCAL EXHAUST:
OTHER EQUIPMENT:
Recommended (rubber or PVC) when working with concentrate Part A
Recommended (goggles, safety glasses) when working with concentrate Part A.
None required for local exhaust, normal dilution ventilation is acceptable.
None required
REACTIVITY DATA    
INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS:
STABILITY:
POLYMERIZATION:
DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS:
Anionic materials
Product is stable
Will not occur
Thermal decomposition may give off nitrous oxides and ammoniac vapors and carbon dioxide during a fire.
SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES AND DISPOSAL    
SPILL:
DISPOSAL:
Contain spill; flush with large excess of water. Avoid large discharges; sorbents may be used.
Remove material or dispose in accordance with all applicable federal, state and local regulations.
Material collected with absorbent may be disposed of in permitted landfill
TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION    
DOT: The product is non-hazardous under DOT Regulations. No special handling procedures are required.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION    
This MSDS may be required by law, but this is not an assertion that the substance is hazardous when used in accordance with proper safety practices and normal handling procedures. Data supplied is for use only in connection with occupational safety and health.

No guarantee of accuracy is made. It is the user's responsibility to determine the suitability of this information for the adoption of necessary safety precautions and disposal considerations. The information relates to the specific materials designated herein, and does not relate to the use in combination with any other material or other process. The listed hazard data herein may reflect the hazards related to the formulation as a whole or to individual components at 100% concentration. Therefore, certain warnings and hazard statements contained on this MSDS may not be applicable to or included in the package labeling.

SARA requires submission of annual reports of release of toxic chemicals that appear in 40 CFR 372. This Information must be included in all MSDS's that are copied and distributed for this material. Components present in this product at a level which could require reporting under the statute are: NONE    

IDENTIFICATION, COMPOSITION AND INGREDIENTS
PRODUCT NAME:
BRAND:
COMPOSITION:
HAZARD RATING:
ADF-200 – Part B
DF-200
Stabilized Hydrogen Peroxide, water and inert ingredients
Health: 0; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 0. (NFPA)
ACTIVEINGREDIENTS:
Hydrogen Peroxide (7722-84-1)
Inert ingredients
TOTAL
%
7.95
92.05
100
TLVLIMITINAIR
1 ppm
PHYSICAL DATA   
APPEARANCE:
ODOR:
EVAPORATION RATE:
VAPOR PRESSURE:
Clear liquid
Odorless
1 (water=1)
23.3 MM HG @ 30 (C)
SOLUBILITY IN WATER:
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
pH of CONCENTRATE:
BOILING POINT:
Complete
1.008 g/cm3
2.275
108 Celsius
FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA   
FLAMMABILITY:
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA:
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS:
SPECIAL FIR FIGHTING PROCEDURES:
EXPLOSION LIMITS:
Not flammable
As for surrounding fire
None
None
N/A
HEALTH HAZARD DATA – EFFECTS OF OVEREXPOSURE    
ROUTES OF ENTRY:
EYE EFFECT:
SKIN EFFECT:




CARCINOGENICITY:
Eye contact, skin contact, ingestion, inhalation.
May cause transient irritation. Rinse immediately with water
May be transiently irritating to skin. Will cause temporary whitening. INGESTION: If swallowed, consult a physician. Do not induce vomiting. Drink a glass of water. INHALATION: Avoid breathing mist. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. Give oxygen if breathing is difficult.

This product (or components of its mixture) is not listed in IARC Monographs, the NTP 6th Annual Report or the current ACGIH TLV's as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen.
FIRST AID EMERGENCY PROCEDURES    
EYE CONTACT:
SKIN CONTACT:
INGESTION:
BREATHING:
Flush eye with cool running water for at least 15 minutes. Call a Physician.
Flush with cool running water. If irritation develops, call a Physician.
Drink promptly a glass of water. Call a Physician.
Move to fresh air. If breathing becomes heavy seek medical attention
SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION
PROTECTIVE:
EYE PROTECTION:
RESPIRATORY:



LOCAL EXHAUST:

OTHER EQUIPMENT:
If skin or contamination of clothing is likely, protective clothing should be worn.
Recommended (goggles, safety glasses).
Atmospheric levels should be maintained below the exposure limits listed in Section III by using engineering controls. If not feasible, use supplied air respirator.

Provide local exhaust, normal dilution ventilation is acceptable. Refer to Industrial Ventilation by ACGIH for a manual of recommended practices.
None required
REACTIVITY DATA    
INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS:
STABILITY:
POLYMERIZATION:
DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT:
Heavy metal ions, alkalis and combustible materials
Product is stable at normal temperatures and storage
Will not occur
Oxygen which supports combustion.
SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES AND DISPOSAL    
SPILL:



DISPOSAL:
Contain spill; flush with large excess of water. Avoid large discharges; sorbents may be used. See prior sections for hazards and exposure controls. Dike with sand or earth to contain spill. Avoid ignition sources. Transfer to approved DOT drum for recovery or disposal.

Remove material or dispose in accordance with all applicable federal, state and local regulations. Material collected with absorbent may be disposed of in permitted landfill
TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
DOT REGULATIONS: The product is non-hazardous under DOT Regulations. No special handling procedures are required.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION    
SARA requires submission of annual reports of release of toxic chemicals that appear in 40 CFR 372. This Information must be included in all MSDS's that are copied and distributed for this material. Components present in this product at a level which could require reporting under the statute are NONE. This MSDS may be required by law, but this is not an assertion that the substance is hazardous when used in accordance with proper safety practices and normal handling procedures. Data supplied is for use only in connection with occupational safety and health. No guarantee of accuracy is made. It is the user's responsibility to determine the suitability of this information for the adoption of necessary safety precautions and disposal considerations. The information relates to the specific materials designated herein, and does not relate to the use in combination with any other material or other process. The listed hazard data herein may reflect the hazards related to the formulation as a whole or to individual components at 100% concentration. Therefore, certain warnings and hazard statements contained on this MSDS may not be applicable to or

IDENTIFICATION, COMPOSITION AND INGREDIENTS
PRODUCT NAME:
BRAND:
COMPOSITION:
HAZARD RATING:
ADF-200 – Combined for Use
DF-200 - Part A combined with Part B
Biodegradable mixture of cationic detergents, hydrogen peroxide and fatty alcohols
Health: 0; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 0. (NFPA)
ACTIVEINGREDIENTS:
Quaternary Ammonium Compound (CAS 68424-85-1)
Hydrogen Peroxide (7722-84-1)
INERT INGREDIENTS
TOTAL
%
1.6

3.98
94.42
100
OSHAPELACGIH
Not Established

1 ppm
PHYSICAL DATA   
APPEARANCE:
ODOR:
EVAPORATION RATE:
VAPOR PRESSURE:
Yellowish clear liquid
Sweet
1 (water=1)
Unknown
SOLUBILITY IN WATER:
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
pH of CONCENTRATE:
BOILING POINT:
Complete
1.11
9.85
212° F.
FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA   
FLAMMABILITY:
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA:
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS:
SPECIAL FIR FIGHTING PROCEDURES:
EXPLOSION LIMITS:
Not flammable
As for surrounding fire
None
None
N/A
FIRST AID EMERGENCY PROCEDURES    
EYE CONTACT:
SKIN CONTACT:
INGESTION:
BREATHING:
Flush eye with cool running water for at least 15 minutes. Call a Physician.
Flush with cool running water. If irritation develops, call a Physician.
Drink promptly a glass of water or milk. Call a Physician.
Move to fresh air. If breathing becomes heavy seek medical attention
SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION
PROTECTIVE GLOVES:
EYE PROTECTION:
LOCAL EXHAUST:
OTHER EQUIPMENT:
Avoid spilling and skin contact.
Avoid eye contact, safety glasses recommended
None required for local exhaust, normal dilution ventilation is acceptable.
None required
REACTIVITY DATA    
INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS:
STABILITY:
POLYMERIZATION:
DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT:
Anionic materials
Product is stable
Will not occur
Thermal decomposition may give off nitrous oxides and ammoniac vapors and carbon dioxide during a fire.
SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES AND DISPOSAL    
SPILL:

DISPOSAL:
Contain spill; flush with large excess of water. Avoid large discharges; sorbents may be used.

Remove material or dispose in accordance with all applicable federal, state and local regulations. Material collected with absorbent may be disposed of in permitted landfill
TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
DOT: The product is non-hazardous under DOT Regulations. No special handling procedures are required.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION    
This MSDS may be required by law, but this is not an assertion that the substance is hazardous when used in accordance with proper safety practices and normal handling procedures. Data supplied is for use only in connection with occupational safety and health.

No guarantee of accuracy is made. It is the user's responsibility to determine the suitability of this information for the adoption of necessary safety precautions and disposal considerations. The information relates to the specific materials designated herein, and does not relate to the use in combination with any other material or other process. The listed hazard data herein may reflect the hazards related to the formulation as a whole or to individual components at 100% concentration. Therefore, certain warnings and hazard statements contained on this MSDS may not be applicable to or included in the package labeling.

SARA requires submission of annual reports of release of toxic chemicals that appear in 40 CFR 372. This Information must be included in all MSDS's that are copied and distributed for this material. Components present in this product at a level which could require reporting under the statute are: NONE 
The technologies represent revolutionary new developments for the response to dealing with CB Warfare Agents, Toxic Industrial Materials, viruses, bacteria and bacteria spores (Appendix A)

In addition, the operational characteristics and unique delivery devices afford end-users with state-of-the-art means of combating situations.

A non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous foam with enhanced physical stability for the rapid mitigation and decontamination of Chemical and Biological Warfare agents has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

The Advanced Decon Formula (ADF); using the formula licensed by Sandia National Laboratories.

This formulation is both non-toxic to animals, including humans, generally non- corrosive and can be used for the neutralization of many toxants, both chemical and biological. The formulation allows decontamination of areas populated with both people and sensitive equipment; works on all currently anticipated material surfaces and can be incorporated into a wide variety of carriers (foams, gels, fogs, aerosols) that satisfy a wide variety of operational objectives.

This formulation has low toxicity and low corrosivity properties. This allows the formulation to be used where exposure to people, animals, or equipment may be necessary or prudent.

Safe - Despite its power, the primary oxidizers within the Sandia Formulation will decompose into oxygen and water. Consequently, Sandia Formulation has none of the problems of gaseous release of using chlorine (chlorinated organics) or chemical residues that are associated with other chemical oxidants. And since Sandia Formulation is totally miscible with water, is perfectly safe to handle and apply to many materials.

Versatile - The Sandia Formulation is very versatile. As a biocide, it can kill vegetative biological agents as well as difficult-to-kill spores like anthrax and molds. Similarly, it can treat both easy-to-oxidize pollutants (iron and sulfides) and difficult-to-oxidize pollutants (solvents, gasolines and pesticides) as well as immediately reducing the flammability. And there is no residual effect on the environment.

MECHANISMS OF ACTION
  • Physically denatures bacterial spores via a surfactant boring holes in their protein armor
  • Oxidizing agents attack the genetic material (DNA) within the spore
  • Hydrolyzing agents attack vital bacterial spore contents and functions
This is a biodegradable, minimally corrosive, and broad spectrum detergent with an efficacy and efficiency based upon synergism of its surfactant (soap) properties, its hydrolytic (able to remove Chlorine) and its oxidizing properties can oxidize central sulfur; moreover its capacity to form both anionic and cationic micelles around large proteins on the exterior surfaces of cell membranes hold potential application in topological control of enzyme and receptor function and in killing an array of biological pathogens as well as deactivating chemical warfare agents. Lethality has been demonstrated with spores, bacteria (including weaponized anthrax), viruses, and prions.

The basic chemistry of the formula is a combination of two basic active ingredients; quaternary amines and hydrogen peroxide. The formula also contains several stabilizing compounds, which help to extend the shelf life of the formula and control the chemical reaction so that the decontamination occurs in a safe manner.

The pH of the formula is around 9.8 making is basic solution. When the formula comes in contact with inorganic acids it will work to neutralize the acids bringing them to a pH of 7.

The formula works differently on organic acids, solvents and compounds. In this case the combined formula breaks the chemical bonds between the individual atoms. The result is a release of water molecules reducing the chemicals on the adjacent list to carbon and non-hazardous inorganic residue.

Once the decontamination formula had been applied and allowed to work the materials left behind are all non-hazardous and can be rinsed away with water. None of the chemicals remain in their original form. None of the residues are flammable and all of the remaining materials can be disposed of safely without harm to the environment.

A DECON SOLUTION FOR PROFESSIONAL REMEDIATION CONTRACTORS

The most advanced restoration and remediation formulation available today, providing professionals with an unmatched remediation tool. ADF is the "most cost effective solution" in the remediation industry; decontaminating commercial and residential facilities in a number of different applications.

  • Highly efficacious and environmentally safe, ADF is a broad spectrum bactericide, fungicide and virucide. It disinfects, removes stains, restores surfaces and prevents damage caused by mold and its chemical metabolites.
  • HIGHLY effective against mold and fungal spores and confirmed to kill mold in AOAC testing.
  • SHOWN to be an effective cleaning and deodorizing agent against Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds; odors caused by mold metabolites and against Mycotoxins; chemical by-products that are known to be allergenic.
  • PROVEN effective as a mold inhibitor in EPA Hard Surface Mildew- Fungistatic Tests for a minimum of 21 days.
  • INHIBITS the growth of mold in exterior applications on porous surfaces.
  • SAFE to use in virtually any indoor remediation application including
  • hospitals, schools and nursing homes.
ADF COMMERCIAL USES (non exhaustive list):
Athletic Facilities Disinfection of Medical and Roof Cleaning
Building Exterior Cleaning Health Care Facilities Schools and Institutions
Building Interior Cleaning Fire/Smoke Odors Tear Gas
Carpet Cleaning HVAC System Cleaning Trauma
Commercial Laundry Meth Labs Veterinary Clinics
Crime Scene Mold Remediation Virucidal Applications
Cruise Ships Norovirus Water and Sewer Damage

ADF IS PROVEN EFFECTIVE AGAINST (non exhaustive list):
Aflatoxin
Anhydrous Ammonia
Anthrax-AMES RIID
Anthrax-ANR 1
Aspergillus niger
Bacillus globigii
Bacillus subtillus
Bacteriophages
Bovine coronavirus
Bovine enterovirus
Butyl Isocyanate
Capsaicin (Pepper Spray)
Chlorine Gas
Enterobacter aerogenes
Enterococcus faecalis
Erwina herbicola
Escherichia coli (ESBL)
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Enterobacter aerogenes
G Series Nerve Agents
Hydrogen Cyanide
Influenza A & B
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Listeria monocytogenes Malathion
Methamphetamine
MRSA
Mustard(HD)
Mycotoxins
Norovirus
Paclitaxel(Taxol)
Pathogenic Avian
Flu(HPAI)MS-2/T-4
Penicillium variabile
Phosgene Gas
Proteus mirabilis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Salmonella choleraesuis
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Vancomycin Resistant
Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)

THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION IN THE REMEDIATION INDUSTRY

ADF kills organisms and neutralizes chemicals on contact, with no negative impact on the environment. ADF is safe for people, pets and plants only 8 hours after application.

We took extra effort to develop an easy to use, effective and efficient solution resulting in the opportunity for increased revenues and decreased costs for your business:

Increased Product Coverage:
One gallon of ADF mixed (1/2 gallon of Part A and 1/2 gallon of Part B) will treat 2500 to 4000 sq. ft. in a residence (assume a physical footprint of each floor + a 9 ft ceiling). In a commercial application this number can grow to 7,500 sq ft or more, depending on structure and contents.

Decreased Application Time:
ADF is easy to mix and use. The Atomize or (ULV) Cold Mist Spray is the most common application method. It takes approximately 15 minutes to treat 1,000 sq ft. Most residential properties can be treated in 45 minutes or less including attics, crawl spaces and HVAC systems.

Potential Labor Savings:
ADF allows you to drastically reduce the quantity of labor on each job and allowing for multiple job sites in one day. ADF treats difficult to reach areas such as HVAC systems, industrial equipment, as well as areas neglected by conventional remediation methods. When applied correctly, ADF never fails the post inspection clearance testing, eliminating the need for additional applications and associated costs.

Customer Satisfaction:
For less than the cost of a conventional remediation, you can treat your customer's entire structure. An added benefit is the same application is treating both the surface and the air for even better remediation results at the same cost for your client.

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
Mold, Fire, HVAC, Meth, Trauma, and Water

SOLUTION PREPARATION
Mix solution as necessary for footage to be treated. Mixed solution is only active for 8 hours. Mix equal parts of A and B. For mold and where testing is needed we recommend not diluting the product. We recommend only mixing enough A and B together for immediate use; the product cannot be re used after 8 hours.
  • 1 gallon of combined solution treats approximately 2,500 – 4,000 sq ft
  • Heavier and thicker organisms may require more product for coverage

Wear appropriate PPE for the particular situation. (N95 with sealed eye protection and Tyvek suit is adequate)

MOLD PROCEDURE
Evacuate all occupants from building during the decontamination applications:
  • Remove all pets and small plants. Larger plants can be covered with drop cloth or bed sheet.
  • Cover aquariums and turn off aquarium aerator pumps. Aquarium pump should be off for minimum of 8 hours following completion of application.
  • Cover sensitive wood furnishings and floors (polished table, pianos, antiques, etc.) with protective tarp or drop cloths. The spray solution can cause marks in polished finishes of wood furniture if applied heavily enough to cause run-off.
  • Cover and seal fire alarms, a thick mist will set them off, after 30 minutes these can be uncovered.
  • We recommend removing loose debris, especially contaminated debris, before applying ADF. Where mold or other organisms growth is thin, removal may not be necessary prior to ADF application.
  • Atomize or (ULV) Cold Mist Spray, the entire building or area of building with an initial treatment.
  • When heavier organism growth is present, a denser, "wetter" spray may be necessary for treatment. Such as areas that require removal of visible growth by wire brush, sanding or HEPA Vacuum.

DWELL TIME FOR STRUCTURE (please see **)
This is dependent on the severity of the mold (or other organisms) in structure, or if it is just being treated for odors. If this is a severe mold infestation case, keep building sealed for 8 hours after the initial application. Air scrubbing and negative ventilation can be used to reduce this time period. Follow all regulations regarding PPM limits prior to re-entry if the reaction period is purposely reduced as above. After the reaction period is over, open doors and windows and allow proper ventilation time until all evidence of ADF is exhausted. Utilize proper exhaust fans if necessary.

FINAL PHASE FOR SECOND DECONTAMINATION FOGGING (optional)
After completing removal of all visible mold and damaged materials, treat the entire building with second treatment of ADF. The second ULV treatment allows ADF to penetrate areas that have been opened up or exposed after the first treatment and debris removal. This is highly recommended for remodeling projects involving wall cavities to be re-sealed after product application.

** VENTILATING THE BUILDING WHEN POST APPLICATION TESTING IS PERFORMED
If post remediation verification will be performed by an independent Indoor Environmental Professional (IEP) or Industrial Hygienist (IH), do not ventilate the building until after the verification is completed and the building is cleared for occupants to return. For optimum results, do not have structure tested until 24 hours after final application, it is critical not to test too soon. During this 24 hours, all air moving equipment (ceiling fans, forced air furnaces, air scrubbers, negative air machines, and air conditioners) should be shut down to allow dead and fragmented spores to fall to the ground. After clearance testing, the exhaust fans can be turned on and windows opened to adequately exchange air.

CLEANUP
Used correctly, a light treatment will require no clean up. In certain cases with heavy treatment it may be necessary to wipe some surfaces as necessary to remove excess surfactant.

VACUUM
Use a vacuum with a HEPA filtration system, and vacuum all carpets treated once dried. Carpets could contain substantial amounts of dead mold spores after application is complete.

FINISH
Clean equipment by rinsing thoroughly with water after every job no later than 1 hour after application is completed. Water can be run through the ULV sprayer for one minute to clean interior mechanisms.

OTHER PROCEDURES

FIRE and METH
Treat entire structure with ULV sprayer and wipe surfaces as necessary or as directed in protocol from Industrial Hygienist. Modec's Decon Formula encapsulates volatile substances and when wiped off will remove volatile substances with it.

HVAC
Cleaning HVAC system: Remove filter and / or return air end cap. Direct spray unit into area and run fan in "fan on" setting. Length of spraying time is dependent on home size and scope of HVAC system. Approximately 5 minutes should be adequate, or until Modec's Decon Formula is seen coming out of supply registers. If dwelling has extensive ducting (commercial), a series of blocked registers and systematic treatment for each "arm" may be necessary.

TRAUMA and WATER
ULV spraying for odor elimination and surface cleaning is recommended. For concrete we recommend leaving the product behind to soak into surface.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

1.What is the basic chemistry and pH of Modec's Decon Formula?
Modec's Decon Formula is composed of two separate chemical solutions. Part A is an alkaline pH 10.6 surfactant formula. Part B is an acidic pH 2.275, stabilized 7.9% Hydrogen Peroxide solution. The combined Part A and Part B solution is an alkaline pH 9.7.

2.Why is Modec's Decon Formula so effective?
ADBAC (Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride), the active ingredient in Modec's Decon Formula, associates with negatively charged species in cellular membranes, disrupting the membrane and causing lysis of the cell. Other ingredients "soften" up the cell wall making it vulnerable to attack. Activated oxygen species oxidize critical substances, furthering their demise.

3.How does Modec's Decon Formula come packaged?
Modec's Decon Formula comes packaged in 4 Gallon boxes: - 2 gallons of Part A - 2 gallons of Part B - This is a minimum order quantity

4.Why is Modec's Decon Formula a 2 parts Solution?
Hydrogen Peroxide is activated in alkaline solutions but cannot be stored in alkaline solution. Alkaline solutions are generally the preferred pH regime for effective use. For stability purposes, the two parts must be kept separate and not mixed until point of use.

5.How do I apply Modec's Decon Formula?
Modec's Decon Formula can be applied as a ULV (Ultra Low Volume) Cold Mist Spray, Foam or Pump Spray. A ULV sprayer is the most cost effective method for application.

6.What is the coverage area of Modec's Decon Formula?
One gallon of Modec's Decon Formula (1/2 gallon of Part A and 1/2 gallon of Part B) will treat 2,500 to 4,000 sq ft in a residence (assumes a physical footprint of each floor + a 9 ft ceiling). In a commercial application this number can increase to 7,500 sq ft or more, depending on structure and contents.

7.How long will Modec's Decon Formula remain effective after Part A and Part B are mixed?
Modec's Decon Formula will remain active for 8 hours. The mixed product cannot be used after this time. We recommend only mixing the amount of product that will be used.

8.Can Modec's Decon Formula freeze?
When applying Modec's Decon Formula the temperature of the structure needs to be maintained above freezing. On the rare occasion Modec's Decon Formula freezes during shipping or if it's left in below freezing temps, simply thaw the product prior to use.

CONTACT INFORMATION
ACD Shelter Techniek b.v.:
Marketing 14
NL 6921 RE DUIVEN
T: +31 263-629-626
F: +31 263 629 636
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Organism Type
Bacteria
Agrobacterium tumefaciens Neisseria catarrhalis
Bacillus anthracis –– (Anthrax) Phytomonas tumefaciens
Bacillus anthracis spores –– (Anthrax spores) Proteus vulgaris
Bacillus magaterium sp. (veg.) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacillus paratyphusus Pseudomonas fluorescens
Bacillus subtilis spores Salmonella enteritidis
Bacillus subtilis Salmonella paratyphi (Enteric fever)
Clostridium tetani Salmonella typhosa (Typhoid fever)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diptheria''s)  Salmonella typhimurium 
Ebertelia typhosa Sarcina lutea
Escherichia coli (E. Coli) Serratia marcescens
Legionella bozemanil Shigella dyseteriae (Dysentery)
Legionella dumoffii Shigella flexneri (Dysentery)
Legionella gormanii  Shigella paradysenteriae
Legionella micdadei Spirillum rubrum
Legionella longbeachae Staphylococcus albus
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires Dis.) Staphylococcus aerius
Leptospiracanicola (infectious Jaundice) Staphylococcus hemolyticus
Microccocus candidus Staphylococcus lactis
Microccocus sphaeroides Streptococcus viridans
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) Vibrio comma (Cholera)
Molds  
Aspergillius glaucus Penicillium expansum (olive)
Mucor racemosus A Penicillium roqueforti (green) 
Mucor racemosus B Penicillium digitatum
Oospora lactis  
 Protozoa
Chlorella Vulgaris Paramecium
Nematode Eggs  
Virus  
Bacteriopfage –– E. Coli Influenza (Influenza)
Infectious Hepatitis (Hepatitis) Poliovirus –– Poliomyelitis
Yeast  
Brewers yeast Saccharomyces ellipsoideus
Common yeast cake Saccharomyces spores
Saccharomyces carevisiae  
Chemical Type  
Acetadshyde Methyl Alcohol
Acetic Acid Mud and Sediment
Acetone Methyl Bromide
Alchohol''s Methyl Chloride 
Alkalinity Methyl Ethyl Ketone 
Amines Naphtha 
Amyl Acetate Nitric Acid 
Amyl Alcohol Nitrobentene
Antifreeze Nitrotuluene
Benzene Odors, General
Bleach Oils, Dissolved
Butyl Alcohol Oil, Suspended
Butyl Acetate Organic Acids
Calcium Hypachlorite  Organic Esters
Chloral  Organic Salts
Chloramine  Oxalic Acids
Chloroform  Oxygen
Chlorine  Oxone 
Chtorobenzne  PCB's 
Chlorophenol  Pesticides
Chlorophyll Phenol
Citric Acid Plastic Taste
Cresol Plating Waste
Defoliants Potassium Permanganate
Detergents Precipitated Iron
Diesel Fuel and Gasoline Precipitated Sulfur
Dyes Proploic Acid
Emulsions  Proplonaldehyde
Ethyl Acetate Propyl Acetate
Ethyl Acryiate Propyl Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol Propyl Chloride
Ethyl Amine Radon
Ethyl Chloride  Rubber Hose Taste
Ethel Either Soap
Formaldehyde Sodium Hypochlotite 
Glycol''s Soluble Iron Solvents 
Herbicides Sulphonated Oils
Hydrogen Bromide Suspended Matter
Hydrogen Iodide Tannins
Hydrogen Peroxide Tar Emulsion
Hydrogen Selenide Tartaric Acid
Hydrogen Sulfide Taste, DI Water and Organics
Hypochlorous Acid THM's
Insecticides Toluene 
Iodine Toludine
Isopropyl Acetate trichloroethylene
Isopropyl Alcohol  Turpentine
Ketones Urine and Feces
Lactic Vinegar
Mercaptans Xylene
Methyl Acetate Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC''s)
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

Sandia National Laboratories USA is the patent holder to the Decon Formula DF- 200.

The Decon Formula was developed by Sandia National Laboratories at the urgent request of the US Department of Defense to effectively remediate any pathogenic threat (WMD) and reduce the threat of multiple Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW).

Sandia National Laboratories is operated and managed by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. Sandia Corporation operates Sandia National Laboratories as a contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and supports numerous federal, state, and local government agencies, companies, and organizations.

Although most of Sandia's 8,700 employees work at Sandia's headquarters in Albuquerque, New Mexico, or at its second principal laboratory in Livermore, California. Others are working at various sites in the U.S. and abroad to deliver innovative and reliable solutions in a changing world.

REGISTRATION

DF-200/500 is registered with the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) under FIFRA No. 80346-1/2:

  • Antibacterial
  • Cleaner
  • Mildewstat
  • Decontaminant
  • Virucide
  • Disinfectant
  • Deodorizer
  • Fungicide
  • Algaecide
(including Norovirus and H1N1)

CONTACT INFORMATION
ACD Shelter Techniek b.v.:
Marketing 14
NL 6921 RE DUIVEN
T: +31 263-629-626
F: +31 263 629 636
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.