- Decontamination prevents spreading of the contamination.
- Always decontaminate from top to bottom, or from head to feet.
- At decontamination, water should have a temperature between 15-35 °Celsius or 59-95 °Fahrenheit.
- Beware of secondary contamination.
- Decontamination prevents spreading of the contamination
- Decontaminating people is meant to prevent further spreading of the contamination.
- Water temperature at decontamination may not be lower than 15°C or 59°F otherwise this causes increased chance of hypothermia and increases adsorption.
- Water temperature at decontamination may not be higher than 35°C or 95 °F otherwise this causes increased chance of sweat excretion and increases adsorption.
Always decontaminate form head to feet. When proceeding in this manner, you keep the casualties’ head best protected.
- The head is decontaminated first.
- The head cannot be contaminated again during decontamination.
At decontamination, clean areas must be kept clean.
Do not use hard brushes
Decontaminating personel should wear protective clothing at all times.
Always install flow of decontamination opposite of the wind direction, so people cannot be contaminated anew.
- Rescue personnel should be vaccinated and clothed in protective clothing.
- Isolate and/or quarantine people who have been exposed to the virus, and decontaminate them.
- Destroy contaminated animals and foodstuff, dead animals should be incinerated or buried.
- Vehicles and persons coming out of the contaminated zone must be decontaminated.
- Contact between contaminated and clean zone should be kept to a minimum.
- The least amount possible traffic between the zones.
- No transportation of animals and as little as possible transportation of people.
Rescue personnel are the first to come in contact with the casualties and/or the contaminated area, they must be protected against (secondary) contamination.
- Rescue personnel must be vaccinated against the particular case of virus.
- Rescue personnel must be wearing protective clothing.
People from the contaminated area must be isolated or be put in quarantine.
- Isolation: People contaminated with the virus must be kept separated from the rest of the population to prevent spreading. These people will be decontaminated and cured of the virus.
- Quarantine: People who have been exposed to the virus, but have not become ill, will be separated from the rest of the population to prevent spreading. These people will be decontaminated.
Animals involved with the virus must be destroyed.
- Involved animals include:
- Animals from which the virus originates.
- Animals that could be infected with the virus that have lived in the contaminated area.
- Foodstuffs of animals originating from one of the above criteria.
- Slaughtering of the animals
- Burning or burying of the animals and foodstuffs.
To keep spreading of the virus as limited as possible, it is essential to act as fast as possible.
The decontamination area is divided in three zones;
- The hot zone
- The warm zone
- The cold zone
The area is set up in opposite direction of the wind direction!
Hot zone: This is the area directly around the source of the virus. This is where the virus rages. Only rescue personnel wearing protective clothing may enter this area.
Warm zone: This is the area around the hot zone. The fire department states what the measurements of this area are. Distance from the hot zone to the cold zone must be at least 25 meters, because certain substances are able to advance 10 meters against the wind direction. In this zone, people can be isolated or quarantined. Life saving medical treatments and the decontamination of people and vehicles will be carried out in this zone. Medical personnel is active in this zone. All rescue personnel wear protective clothing. Decontaminated peope and vehicles exit to the cold zone.
Cold zone: This is the area where the virus is eliminated. Severely injured people are transported to the hospital with ambulances. People can be isolated or quarantined here as well, under certain circumstances, abiding special countermeasures.
Quarantine and Isolation
For putting people in quarantine or isolating them, you have two options.
- Proceed in the warm zone
- Proceed in the cold zone
For putting people in quarantine and isolating people, the same system can be applied, however, you cannot keep both groups together in the same system.
In the warm zone the virus rages outside the shelter. People must be separated from the outside world, therefore, overpressure is required inside the shelter. Clean air from the cold zone is sucked in and blown in the shelter. By keeping the pressure inside the shelter higher than outside, air is constantly blown out of the shelter. No contaminated air can get into the shelter.
In case the shelter is placed in the cold zone, under pressure is required inside the shelter. Inside the shelter virus rages, but outside the air is clean. By constantly sucking air out of the shelter and filtering it, contaminated cannot get out of the shelter. Through the underpressure inside the shelter, clean air is drawn in. Air drawn out of the shelter can be collected, but also mixed with the outer air after filtering.
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